Analytical Psychology Press: What is Analytical Psychology?
Analytical Psychology Press
What is Analytical Psychology?
Analytical psychology is a school of psychology founded in the early twentieth century by the Swiss psychiatrist C. G. Jung.
Jung developed theories about the structure of the psyche and the nature of the unconscious, which he tested experimentally and for their applicability across cultures and historical periods.
Left: Illustration from the Griemiller Rosarium.
Jung's contributions include:
Jung's contributions (continued)
Jung's theories are now finding support from contemporary neuroscience research and from other schools of psychoanalysis.
WHO WAS C. G. JUNG?
Carl Gustav Jung was born in 1875 and grew up in modest circumstances, the son of a pastor in a Swiss village outside of Basel.
He attended secondary school, university, and medical school in Basel.
Left: Jung with his parents and sister.
Jung's medical dissertation was a study of the visionary world of a psychic, patterned after the work of the Swiss Professor of Psychology, Théodore Flournoy (1854-1920).
Flounoy hypothesized that the visions of psychics, like dreams, were products of the unconscious.
C. G. Jung
Jung's psychiatric training was under Eugen Bleuler at the Burghölzi, one of the finest psychiatric hospitals in Europe.
Jung conducted research, using Wundt's new paradigm of word association experiments, but modified to measure emotional responses to the stimulus words.
Left: A galvanometer used by C. G. Jung in his word association experiments. The diagrams were made by Jung. (From the Burghölzli University Hospital, Zürich)
Jung married during this time.
His bride, Emma Rauschenbach, brought considerable wealth to their union.
Jung no longer had to support himself, his mother, and his sister on his staff physician salary.
The Jungs built a home in Küsnacht, near Zürich, which Jung was active in designing.
They lived in this home for the rest of their lives.
Thanks to Jung's heirs it is now a museum.
Jung chose the inscription, which surmounts the front entrance of his home in Küsnacht, Switzerland:
Vocatus Atque Non Vocatus Deus Aderit
Called or not called, the god will be there.
It is attributed to the Oracle of Delphi
Jung found it in Erasmus's collection of quotes, which he had acquired when he was 19-years-old.
Jung was asked by Bleuler to review Freud's Interpretation of Dreams.
Jung was deeply impressed, corresponded with Freud, and then visited Freud in Vienna.
Left: Jung in front of the Burghölzli
In their initial meeting Jung and Freud famously talked for many hours. Both were fascinated by the nature of the unconscious.
Freud saw in Jung a member of the psychiatric establishment and a Gentile, who could introduce psychoanalysis beyond Freud's few Jewish "followers" in Vienna.
Left: Freud's Vienna Consulting Room
Jung became close to Freud and devoted his enormous energies into working with Freud to establish psychoanalysis.
Jung was elected the first President of the International Psychoanalytical Association (1911-1914).
Left: Psychoanalytic Congress, 1911. Freud and Jung are in the center of the second row. Jung, to Freud's left, leans forward in order not to appear taller than Freud. Jung's wife, Emma, is seated in front of him.
Jung introduced Freud and psychoanalysis to the psychiatric establishment.
In 1909 Jung and Freud traveled together to lecture at Clark University in Massachusetts.
Jung's Swiss mentors, including Eugen Bleuler and Theodore Flournoy, were less impressed with Freud.
Left: Theodore Flournoy with his American friend and colleague, William James of Harvard.
As noted earlier, Jung's psychiatric training had been under Eugen Bleuler, who had spent his life working with psychiatric patients, documenting his work with careful case studies and training psychiatrists with intellectual rigor and openness. He was the first person to use the term "schizophrenia."
In comparison, Freud's work reflected limited experience with psychiatric disorders. However, his confidence and his narrative style of unfolding a mystery based on clues, made it very appealing.
Jung became disillusioned with Freud personally and could not accept Freud's insistence that the Oedipal complex remain the unquestioned cornerstone of psychoanalysis.
Jung realized that his own views, already developing prior to his meeting Freud, were not considered or even tolerated by Freud
Left: Jung's desk.
Jung disagreed with Freud's assertion that dreams disguise the wishes of the dreamer, so that only the analyst as a Sherlock Holmes could tease out their real meaning—which of course would fit the analyst's theory.
Jung argued that dreams were symbolic in nature and compensatory to the conscious attitude of the dreamer.
Left: Painting by Henri Rousseau.
Jung went from being at the forefront of the psychoanalytic movement to persona non grata.
Jung was accused by Freud and his followers of anti-Semitism and even of being a Nazi. This was an ad hominem attack that had tremendous valence following the Second World War—and which lingers to this day.
There is little doubt that Jung lacked a deep understanding of Judaism and that he had unconscious prejudices.
Nevertheless, an accusation of anti-Semitism by Freud seems very odd in that Jung had not hesitated to promote Freud and to send his students to study with Freud.
Jung continued to have Jewish patients and followers, and their diaspora carried analytical psychology to many parts of the world, including Great Britain, the United States and Canada, Israel, South Africa, and South America.
After the very painful break with Freud, Jung found solace with his family and colleagues in Zürich, as well as in the natural world on Lake Zürich.
He saw patients, carried on an active correspondence, and wrote several important books during this time.
Left: C. G. and Emma Jung with their children.
In the evenings he retired to his study and conducted a "confrontation with the unconscious," in which he had dialogs with figures from his dreams and visions.
Left: Lake Zürich near Jung's home.
Allowing himself to enter dreamlike states while remaining conscious was an enormous challenge, as the dream figures confronted him with his failings—not his worldly failings but ways he had failed himself.
He recorded these sessions in black notebooks, where he also made paintings and drawings.
The Red Book
Later Jung transcribed the material in the notebooks into a red-covered volume with parchment pages. He painted the images and wrote the text in calligraphy.
The Red Book was kept private by Jung, and his heirs placed it in a Swiss bank vault. It was finally published in 2009 in a beautiful facsimile edition.
Jung used a comparative method to test his hypotheses about the human psyche, studying ancient texts as well as spiritual texts from other cultures.
He approached these works from a psychological, not a theological, point of view.
Left C. G. Jung & the Indologist Heinrich Zimmer
Jung's interest in East Indian, Chinese, African, and Native American cultures brought him into contact with Europeans who were among the first to make a serious academic study of the spiritual traditions of these cultures.
Jung's engagement with these scholars and their work both validated many of his views but also influenced his work.
The Secret of the Golden Flower
In 1928, the Sinologist Richard Wilhelm sent Jung his translation of a Chinese text, "The Secret of the Golden Flower."
It was a Daoist text about spiritual /psychological transformation in the Chinese alchemical tradition.
The text had a profound effect on Jung, and he realized that alchemical texts were an important source of comparative psychological material.2
JUNG'S PSYCHOLOGICAL STUDY OF ALCHEMICAL TEXTS
Jung found in alchemy a source of comparative material against which to test his theories. Were his theories specific to a particular culture or time, or did they have more universal or fundamental features?
To paraphrase Jung: "Might the obscure metaphors and symbols of alchemy, as well as their accompanying images, be projections of internal schemata and processes of inner transformation?"
and Jungian psychoanalysis take into account the entire personality and posit that there is a desire for "wholeness."
Psychological growth in adulthood requires facing one's weak, negative, ignored, or unacceptable attributes and becoming conscious of one's complexes.
Jung referred to a process of individuation, an authentic development of the individual, in dialogue with the unconscious, that takes place over the rest of one's lifetime.
Jung remained vigorous and active throughout a long life, with students coming from around the world to work with him.
Many of Jung's ideas have, ironically, been rediscovered or embraced by the Freudian psychoanalytic movement. This is important validation--ideas arrived at from different starting points.
We look forward to continuing the exploration of psyche in dialogue with analysts from other schools of psychoanalysis.
Developmental psychology and attachment research, as well as infant observation, have been incorporated into Jungian theory and practice.
Influences from Freudian psychoanalysis include Winnicott, Bion, and more recently Ogden.
At the same time, analytical psychology remains distinct from the Freudian school in important ways, including respect for a spiritual life and genuine religious experience.
For more information about Analytical Psychology, visit the website of the International Association of Analytical Psychology and the website of the C. G. Jung Institute of Chicago.